# Timeflow Theory

by Salih Kircalar

### Utilization of Time: Time Flow

Let us re-examine one of the results of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: Hours elapsed on space objects with great mass lag behind hours elapsed on space objects of small mass. A new understanding of this result would be a beneficial contribution to physics. I hold that:1) Energy is the most real and fundamental concept in physics. Energy in organized from (mass energy, mechanical energy, electrical, chemical, nuclear, etc.) always eventually transforms to heat energy.2) The transformation of energy is what we mark as ‘time’.3) Energy involved in a large integrated system of particles transforms differently than energy attached to isolated particles.4) The more energy there is integrated together into a system, the slower the transformation of that energy.As a result, the more mass is present in a system, and/or the more speed the masses have, and/or the less negative potential energy the masses have, the slower the system ages. Example: A star lives billions of years, but a small elementary particle may live only a fraction of a second. Another example: In special relativity, energy, mass, and lifetime all increase together according to the same function of speed v,  y= 1//1-v2/c2 .And another example: Einstein jokingly remarked about the relativity of time: Two minutes passed on an extremely heated iron seems to be longer than two hours passed by a person being together with his or her lower. Of course! The energy of thought of the person on the hot iron is much greater than that of the person with the lower! The final example: that clock near the space object of very great mass effectively becomes part of the very massive system. Like the system overall, the clock itself runs slow.

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### Time Effects Caused by Mass or Energy

The speed of any  physical process is affected by its location in physical space. In Einstein’s general relativity theory (GRT),  proximity to a big mass  causes ‘slowing of clocks’, which means ‘slowing of all physical processes’. Expanding on (1), I assert that physical process speeds are sensitive not only to proximate mass, but also any from of energy-mass energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, potential energy. Special relativity theory (SRT) provides a good example: clocks  on bodies accelerated to high kinetic energy  ‘run slow’. The GRT and SRT examples suggest a general conclusion that the  time consumed  by any physical process is proportional to the amount of energy affecting the process. I find the terms ‘time flow’ and ‘consumption of time’ useful in discussing the situation. Near a big mass or other from of energy,’time flow’ is low, and ‘time consumed’ by any physical process is high. These terms can be understood from a conceptual formula like  ‘time flow’  equals  ‘time’ / ‘energy’. Here, ‘time’ is a fixed interval, like a road, and  ‘time flow’ is like a speed. A vehicle traverses a given road by  a moving at a stated speed. A person experiences  a  given time interval as dictated by the time flow. Increased time flow means decreased opportunity to utilize the time, and vice versa.The close relationship between time and energy suggest a kind of conceptual equivalence, and a possible cyclic process. For example, the lifetime of a mass M is proportional to its energy Mc2. An example would be the lifetime of space bodies [large masses), which is very long compared to the lifetime of many free elementary particles [small energies]. We can attempt  to express  this universal behavior mathematically. Let  M stand for ‘mass’ or more generally ‘energy’. We must have formulae like ‘time flow’ is proportional to 1/M, and ‘consumption of time ‘ is proportional to M.

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### Mass or Energy  & Quantum Mechanics

This note argues that a cycle of transformation between mass and energy is responsible for inaugurating the birth of quantum mechanics and its allied calculations.The lifetime of a mass M is proportional to its energy Mc’2 . Ref(1) Introduces the concept  of ‘Time Flow’ , and Ref(2) defines ‘Time Flow’ = Time/Energy . In order to calculate the lifetime of a mass or an energy in space, we can assume time flow to be time/energy; in any case, no matter what value we assign to time flow, that will not change the present result: the lifetime of a mass or an energy in space is its Mc’2 energy. When this is calculated, the lifetime of 1 kg of mass in space is 2,851,927,903,26… years. When this time is spent, the mass will be transformed into energy or, conversely, if it was an energy at the beginning of the time interval, than into mass. This transformation is a physical law and thus will occur without fail. This can be observed on very small free roaming particles in space. The evidence of the wave-particle duality observed in photons in quantum mechanics is due to the very short lifetime of photons and their corresponding rapid change of state from energy to mass and back again.

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References:
(1) S.Kircalar ‘Utilization of Time: Time Flow’, Galilean Electrodynamics 13, SI 1, 2(2002)
(2) S.Kircalar ‘Time Effects Caused by Mass or Energy’, Galilean Electrodynamics 15, SI 1, 8(2004)
(3) S.Kircalar, ‘Mass or Energy & Quantum Mechanics’ Galilean Electrodynamics 18, Jan/Feb 1, 2 (2007)