Astragalus Clinical Studies

Clinical Studies on Astragalus

and Other Studies of the Effects of Various Astragalus Formulations

Below are studies that have been conducted in China and other venues on the biological activity of astragalus root, and its health benefits. In these studies, it was often used in conjunction with other agents used in traditional Chinese medicine. Keep in mind that most of these studies were conducted prior to the discovery (or publication of the findings) of the ability of astragalus to activate telomerase production.

320 patients with chronic hepatitis B had greater improvement with Yi-ganning (Astragalus membranaceus, Artemisia capillaris, Codonopsis pilosula, etc.) than oleanolic acid controls – Zhang 1993

Absorption and metabolism of Astragali radix decoction: in silico, in vitro, and a case study in vivo. – Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jun;34(6):913-24. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. – Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(13):1227-31. Epub 2006 Aug 10.

A clinical study on the treatment of acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage with wen-she decoction – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 May;9(5):272-3, 260.Gong QM, Wang SL, Gan C. PMID: 2766422

A combination of Chinese herbs, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, enhanced nitric oxide production in obstructed rat kidney. – Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 Aug-Sep;47(2-3):174-83. Epub 2007 Jun 16.PMID: 17627898

A combination of Chinese herbs, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, improved renal microvascular insufficiency in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. – Vascul Pharmacol. 2009 May-Jun;50(5-6):185-93.PMID: 19563735

Action of Astragalus membranaceus on left ventricular function of angina pectoris – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994 Apr;14(4):199-202, 195.Lei ZY, Qin H, Liao JZ.Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing College of TCM.PMID: 7950192

A
dding TCM (leaf of Asiatic Ginseng, root of Astragalus membranaceus Bge, etc) and other adjuvants to chemotherapy improved cancer survival in small cell lung cancer patients – Cha, 1994

Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. – World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 7;11(37):5787-94.

Amic solution hydrolysis for improving content of astragaloside IV in extract of Radix Astragali
– Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Mar;33(6):635-8.PMID: 18590188

An experimental study on effect of astragalus polysaccharides on chitosan/polylactic acid scaffolds for repairing alveolar bone defects in dogs – Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007

An experimental study on the anti-senility effects of shou xing bu zhi – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Apr;9(4):226-7, 198.Chen J.PMID: 2758519

Angina relief was obtained with A. membranaceus in a study comparing it against nifedipine and Salvia in 92 ischemic heart disease patients –  Li, 1995

A novel anticancer effect of Astragalus saponins: Transcriptional activation of NSAID-activated gene. – Int J Cancer. 2009 Sep 1;125(5):1082-91.PMID: 19384947

A novel antioxidant agent, astragalosides, prevents shock wave-induced renal oxidative injury in rabbits. – Urol Res. 2006 Aug;34(4):277-82. Epub 2006 Jun 17.

Antiinflammatory activity of astragaloside IV is mediated by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expression. – Thromb Haemost. 2003 Nov;90(5):904-14.PMID: 14597987

Antidotal effect of glucoside extracted from Astragalus membranaceus on dimethoate intoxication in guinea pigs. – Med Lav. 1998;89 Suppl 2:S136-41.Li Y, Liu X, Xue SZ.Department of Toxicology, Shanghai Medical University, China.PMID: 10217935

Anti-mutagenesis effects of total flavonoids of Astragalus – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;28(12):1164-7.

Antiviral action of combined use of rhizoma Polygoni cuspidati and radix Astragali on HSV-1 strain – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 Mar;24(3):176-80, 192.Wang Z, Cheng Z, Fang X.Department of Oncogenic Virus, Virus Research Institute, Hubei Medical University, Wuhan 430071.PMID: 12242802

Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for analysis and quality control of Radix Astragali and its preparations.
– J Chromatogr A. 2009 Mar 13;1216(11):2087-97. Epub 2008 Mar 6.PMID: 18353340

Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human natriuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 28;116(3):413-21. Epub 2007 Dec 23.PMID: 18243612

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation (Dang Gui Buxue Tang) on menopausal symptoms in Hong Kong Chinese women. – Climacteric. 2008 Jun;11(3):244-51.PMID: 18568789

Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17;115(2):184-93. Epub 2007 Oct 5.PMID: 17996413

Astragaloside IV attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats.
– Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 15;606(1-3):137-41. Epub 2009 Jan 25.PMID: 19374856

Astragaloside IV from Astragalus membranaceus shows cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia in vivo and in vitro. – Planta Med. 2006 Jan;72(1):4-8.

Astragaloside IV improved barrier dysfunction induced by acute high glucose in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. – Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1186-93. Epub 2006 Apr 15.

Astragaloside IV improved intracellular calcium handling in hypoxia-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes via the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase. – Pharmacology. 2008;81(4):325-32. Epub 2008 Mar 18.PMID: 18349554

Astragaloside IV protects against ischemic brain injury in a murine model of transient focal ischemia. – Neuroscience Letter. 2004 Jun 17;363(3):218-23.

Astragaloside IV and polysaccharide production by hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus in bioreactors. – Biotechnol Lett. 2003 Nov;25(21):1853-6.PMID: 14677711

Astragaloside IV dilates aortic vessels from normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats through endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent ways. – Planta Med. 2006 Jun;72(7):621-6. Epub 2006 May 29.

Astragaloside IV improves high glucose-induced podocyte adhesion dysfunction via alpha3beta1 integrin upregulation and integrin-linked kinase inhibition.
– Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Sep 15;76(6):796-804. Epub 2008 Jul 4.PMID: 18652804

Astragalosides isolated from the root of astragalus radix inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products.
– J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 9;57(17):7666-72.PMID: 19681610

Astragalus and angelica mixture inhibits the renal tubular epithelial cell injury induced by aristolochic-acid I – Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Aug 18;38(4):381-4.

Astralagus and Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza) significantly decreased fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Complement Ther Med. 2009 Jun;17(3):141-6. Epub 2009 Jan 23. PMID: 19398067

Astragalus contains compounds which slow cell aging through reduced telomere shortening rate, oxidative stress and increasing DNA repair ability; Peichang Wang, Tanjun Tong, Xinwen Liu, Ying Sun, Zongyu Zhang; Aging Research Center, Health and Science School of Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.; DNA Cell Biol. 2010 Jan ;29(1):33-9. PMID: 19839736

Astragalus contains two isomers which decrease the expression of p16, which may slow aging. – Jian Zhang, Pei-chang Wang, Tan-jun Tong, Zong-yu Zhang,; Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China; Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Feb 5 ;121(3):231-5. PMID: 18298915 [3]

Astragalus demonstrates anti-aging effects through improvement of brain function and immune status in mice; Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Mar;24(3):230-4. PMID: 12617771 [3]

Astragalus extract inhibits destruction of gastric cancer cells to mesothelial cells by anti-apoptosis. – World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Feb 7;15(5):570-7.PMID: 19195058

Astragalus flavonoids ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome in an rat experimental model.; J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):28-34. Epub 2008 Dec 6. PMID: 19103273 [3]

Astragalus has a significant effect on improving heart function in patients with congestive heart failure; Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 Oct;21(10):747-9.PMID: 12575607

Astragalus Improved Cardiac Function of Adriamycin-Injured Rat Hearts by Upregulation of SERCA2a Expression. – Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(3):519-29.PMID: 19606512

Astragalus may have a therapeutic role in combating cytomegalovirus infection; Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2004 Jul ;42(7):490-4. PMID: 15324563

Astragalus may significantly improve Chronic Aplastic Anemia via recovery of hemopoietic function.; Chin J Integr Med. 2007 Jun;13(2):98-102. PMID: 17609906

Astragalus membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation. – Am J Chin Med. 1994;22(1):63-70.Hong CY, Lo YC, Tan FC, Wei YH, Chen CF.Institute of Traditional Medicine, Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan.PMID: 8030620

Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming.
– J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):28-34. Epub 2008 Dec 6.PMID: 19103273

Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats
– Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Jan;30(1):7-10.PMID: 20117973

Astragalus Membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 5;116(2):363-9. Epub 2007 Dec 8.PMID: 18226482

Astragalus membranaceus prevents daunorubicin-induced apoptosis of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes: role of free radical effect of Astragalus membranaceus on daunorubicin cardiotoxicity. – Phytother Res. 2009 Jun;23(6):761-7.PMID: 19172580

Astragalus membranaceus reduces free radical-mediated injury to renal tubules in rabbits receiving high-energy shock waves. – Chin Med J (Engl). 2005 Jan 5;118(1):43-9.

Astragalus membranaceus stimulates human sperm motility in vitro. – Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):289-94.Hong CY, Ku J, Wu P.Institutes of Traditional Medicine and Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan.PMID: 1471613

Astragalus prevents diabetic rats from developing cardiomyopathy by downregulating angiotensin II type2 receptors’ expression. – J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2004;24(4):379-84.

Astragalus polysaccharide appears to attenuate autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cell mass in type 1 diabetic mice; Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Oct;32(20):2169-73. PMID: 18306755

Astragalus polysaccharide improves insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice: regulation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscle.
– J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 8;127(1):32-7. Epub 2009 Oct 2.PMID: 19800959

Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis via an ERK-independent NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line.
– Int J Mol Med. 2009 Feb;23(2):189-96.PMID: 19148542

A study on combination therapy of Western and traditional Chinese medicine of acute viral myocarditis. – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1996 Dec;16(12):713-6.Gu W, Yang YZ, He MX.Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 9772585

A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. – Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1103-11.

Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease. – Alternative Medicine Review 1998 Dec;3(6):422-31.Miller AL.PMID: 9855567

Calcium channel blocking activity of calycosin, a major active component of Astragali Radix, on rat aorta. – Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Aug;27(8):1007-12.

Cardiac output increased from 5.1 to 5.9 L/min after 2 weeks Astragalus membranaceus in 20 angina patients – Lei, 1994

Cardiac functional indexes improved in 26 patients by Kang Er Xin-I (Lonicera japonica, Ophiopogon japonicus, Astragalus membranaceus mainly). It also inactivates Coxsackie B3 virus – Yan, 1991

Cardiac protective effect of Astragalus on viral myocarditis mice: comparison with Perindopril. – Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(3):493-502.

Characterization of novel astragaloside malonates from Radix Astragali by HPLC with ESI quadrupole TOF MS.
– J Sep Sci. 2010 Feb 16.PMID: 20162633

Chemical analysis of Radix Astragali (Huangqi) in China: a comparison with its adulterants and seasonal variations. – J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4861-6.Ma XQ, Shi Q, Duan JA, Dong TT, Tsim KW.Department of Biology and Biotechnology Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.PMID: 12166972

Chemical and biological assessment of a chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: Determination of drug ratio in having optimized properties. – J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 5;54(7):2767-74.

Chemical comparison and classification of Radix Astragali by determination of isoflavonoids and astragalosides. – J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008 Jun 9;47(2):399-406. Epub 2007 Dec 31.PMID: 18272311

Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1. – Mutat Res. 1992 Jun 1;279(3):209-16.Wong BY, Lau BH, Tadi PP, Teel RW.Department of Natural Science Graduate School, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA 92350.PMID: 1377337

Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors. – J Urol. 1991 Aug;146(2):486-90.Rittenhouse JR, Lui PD, Lau BH.Departments of Urology School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, California 92350.PMID: 1856958

Chronic cervicitis treatment by interferon is synergized by Astragalus membranaceus, Qian 1990

Coronary heart disease improvement of angina (episodes reduced 90%), ischemic ST-T in ECG (56%), treadmill exercise (348 to 503 M), left ventricular function, etc, by Yi-qi Huo-xue (Ginseng, Astragalus and Angelicae Sinensis – Liao, 1989

Chronic renal failure symptom scores was decreased from 12.5 to 5.6 in 36 patients by Baoyuan Dahuang Decoction (Panax ginseng, Astragalus membranaceus, Cassia cinnamomi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Rheum palmatum) – Sheng, 1994

Clinical and experimental study of the effect of kang er xin-I on viral myocarditis – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Aug;11(8):468-70, 452.Yan HJ.Yunnan College of TCM, Kunming.PMID: 1659497

Clinical and experimental study on inhibitory effect of sanhuang mixture on platelet aggregation – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Aug;15(8):465-7.Huang WM, Yan J, Xu J.Cardiovascular Research Lab, Xuhui District Central Hospital, Shanghai.PMID: 8580692

Clinical and experimental study on yi-gan-ning granule in treating chronic hepatitis B – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Oct;13(10):597-9, 580.Zhang BZ, Ding F, Tan LW.Hunan Academy of TCM and Pharmacology, Changsha.PMID: 8312695

Clinical observation on treatment of diabetic nephropathy with compound fructus arctii mixture – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Jul;24(7):589-92.

Clinical observation on the treatment of ischemic heart disease with Astragalus membranaceus – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Feb;15(2):77-80.Li SQ, Yuan RX, Gao H.Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical College, Liaoning.PMID: 7787395

Clinical study of 96 cases with chronic hepatitis B treated with jiedu yanggan gao by a double-blind method – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 Feb;10(2):71-4, 67.Chen Z.Dept. of Hepatic Diseases, Beijing TCM Hospital.PMID: 2364464

Clinical study on effect of Astragalus in efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing of chemotherapy in patients of malignant tumor – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Jul;22(7):515-7.PMID: 12592686

Comparative study on angiogenesis effect of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis in chick embryo choriollantoic membrane – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Sep;28(9):876-8.

Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract exerts anti-fibrosis by mediating TGF-beta/Smad signaling in myofibroblasts. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):264-70. Epub 2008 Apr 18.PMID: 18502066

Compound Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract inhibits cell invasion by modulating transforming growth factor-beta/Smad in HepG2 cell.
– J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Feb;25(2):420-6. Epub 2009 Sep 27.PMID: 19793165

Coronary heart disease improvement of angina (episodes reduced 90%), ischemic ST-T in ECG (56%), treadmill exercise (348 to 503 M), left ventricular function, etc, by Yi-qi Huo-xue (Ginseng, Astragalus and Angelicae Sinensis – Liao, 1989

Correlation studies of contents of copper and organic components in Astragalus roots – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;31(15):1249-53.

Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceus. – Phytochemistry. 1994 Nov;37(5):1403-7.PMID: 7765758

Dang-Gui Buxue Tang protects against oxidant injury by enhancing cellular glutathione in H9c2 cells: role of glutathione synthesis and regeneration. – Planta Med. 2007 Feb;73(2):134-41.

Determination of 6 isoflavonoids in the hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceus by HPLC – Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998;33(2):148-51.Zheng Z, Song C, Liu D, Hu Z.Laboratory of Biotechnology of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Shanghai 200032.PMID: 11938951

Determination of seventeen main flavonoids and saponins in the medicinal plant Huang-qi (Radix astragali) by HPLC-DAD-ELSD. – J Sep Sci. 2007 Jun;30(9):1292-9.

Determination of the total content of astragaloside IV in Radix Astragali – Zhong Yao Cai. 2008 Mar;31(3):385-7.PMID: 18619243

Determination of astragaloside IV in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus var. monghulicus) using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. – Journal of Chromatographic Science. 2001 Nov;39(11):459-62.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612, USA.PMID: 11718305

Differential effects of isoflavones, from Astragalus membranaceus and Pueraria thomsonii, on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and adipocyte differentiation in vitro. – J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):899-905.

Diphasic effects of Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE (Leguminosae) on vascular tone in rat thoracic aorta. – Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Aug;28(8):1450-4.

Discrimination of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines using saccharide mapping–enzymatic digestion followed by chromatographic analysis.
– J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Feb 5;51(3):590-8. Epub 2009 Sep 27.PMID: 19850432

Effect and mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus on coxsackie B3 virus RNA in mice – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994 Nov;14(11):664-6.Peng TQ, Yang YZ, Kandolf R.Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhong Shan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 7703635

Effect of 5-fluorouracil in combination with Astragalus membranaceus on amino acid metabolism in mice model of gastric carcinoma – Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Sep;9(5):445-7.

Effect of Astragalan on secretion of tumor necrosis factors in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 May;13(5):263-5, 259.Zhao KW, Kong HY.Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an.PMID: 8219673

Effect of astragaloside IV on the embryo-fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits. – J Appl Toxicol. 2009 Jul;29(5):381-5.PMID: 19367606

Effect of astragalosides on intracellular calcium overload in cultured cardiac myocytes of neonatal rats. – Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(1):11-20.

Effect of Astragalus injection on platelet function and plasma endothelin in patients with early stage diabetic nephropathy – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 Apr;21(4):274-6.PMID: 12577356

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis combined with Enalapril in rats with obstructive uropathy.
– Phytother Res. 2009 Dec 3.PMID: 19960445

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in Rats on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.
– J Trauma. 2010 Feb;68(2):434-40.PMID: 20154555

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on baroreflex sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Feb;28(2):155-

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Ca2+ influx and coxsackie virus B3 RNA replication in cultured neonatal rat heart cells – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Aug;15(8):483-5.Guo Q, Peng TQ, Yang YZ.Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai.PMID: 8580697

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electrical activities of coxsackie B-2 virus-infected rat myocardial cells in culture – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Jun;9(6):355-7, 326.Yuan WL, Chen HZ, Zhou TS.PMID: 2550160

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on erythrocyte sodium content and sodium transport in the coronary heart disease – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Nov;11(11):651-3, 643.Jin C, Dai RH.Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 1667511

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on myoelectric activity of small intestine – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Oct;13(10):616-7, 582.Yang DZ.Nanjing Railway Medical College.PMID: 8312701

Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Jun;15(6):328-30.Huang ZQ, Qin NP, Ye W.Zhejiang provincial TCM Hospital, Hangzhou.PMID: 7549379

Effect of Astragalus mongholicus injection on proliferation and apoptosis of hormone sensitive (MCF-7) breast cancer cell lines with physiological dose E2
– Zhong Yao Cai. 2009 May;32(5):744-7.PMID: 19771851

Effect of astragalus on the endothelin in rats with acute lung injury. – J Tongji Med Univ. 1999;19(3):206-8, 214.PMID: 12840895

Effect of Astragalus polysaccharide on pancreatic cell mass in type 1 diabetic mice – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Oct;32(20):2169-73.PMID: 18306755

Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides in promoting neutrophil-vascular endothelial cell adhesion and expression of related adhesive molecules – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 May;24(5):427-30.

Effect of fu-zheng qu-xie on gastric disease infected with Campylobacter pyloridis – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Mar;11(3):150-2, 133.Fang JY.Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of TCM, Nanjing.PMID: 2065393

Effect of ingredients of Astragalus-Salvia compound on vascular endothelial cell in placenta and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in trophocyte in pregnant rats with inhibited nitric oxide synthesis – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005 Jun;25(6):516-9.

Effect of satragaloside IV on the increase of microvascular permeability induced by histamine in pial microvessels of rat – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Dec;26(12):850-3.PMID: 12776337

Effect of zhimu and huangqi on cardiac hypertrophy and response to stimulation in mice – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Apr;28(4):369-74.

Effects of Astragalus and saponins of Panax notoginseng on MMP-9 in patients with type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):264-6.

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on cytokine secretion of peripheral dendritic cells in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura in the acute phase
– Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009 Sep;29(9):794-7.PMID: 19960975

Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the expression of immune response genes in head kidney, gill and spleen of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. – Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Jan;8(1):51-8. Epub 2007 Nov 1.PMID: 18068100

Effects of Astragaloside in treating myocardial injury and myocardial Sarco/Endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase of viral myocarditis mice – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1999 Nov;19(11):672-4.Lu S, Zhang J, Yang D.Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (210029).PMID: 11783161

Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. – Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Feb;27(2):229-36.

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and its main components on the acute phase endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteine. – Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;46(4):278-85. Epub 2006 Nov 10

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus injection on nitric oxide and endothelin concentration of intestinal mucosa after hemorrhage shock-reperfusion in rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 May;29(5):444-7.

Effects of Astragalus Membranaceus Injection on TNF-alpha-induced release of inflammatory factors from HUVECs and the molecular mechanisms
– Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009 Jun;29(6):1137-40.PMID: 19726342

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng on the transformation of bone marrow stem cells and proliferation of EPC in vitro – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Nov;30(22):1761-3

Effects of Astragalus membranaccus on cardiac function and SERCA2a gene expression in myocardial tissues of rats with chronic heart failure
– Zhong Yao Cai. 2009 Jan;32(1):85-8.PMID: 19445129

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on left ventricular function and oxygen free radical in acute myocardial infarction patients and mechanism of its cardiotonic action – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Mar;15(3):141-3.Chen LX, Liao JZ, Guo WQ.Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of TCM.PMID: 7647526

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus in promoting T-helper cell type 1 polarization and interferon-gamma production by up-regulating T-bet expression in patients with asthma. – Chin J Integr Med. 2006 Dec;12(4):262-7.

Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on atrial dynamics and ANP secretion
– Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;33(19):2226-9.PMID: 19166013

Effects of astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis – Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;8(5):376-8.

Effects of Astragalus on expression of renal angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 in diabetic rats – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007 Sep;5(5):536-40.PMID: 17854555

Effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on the erythroid lineage and microarray analysis in K562 cells. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 3;127(2):242-50. Epub 2009 Nov 14.PMID: 19922785

Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. – J Int Med Res. 2007 Jan-Feb;35(1):84-90.

Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on chymase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II in diabetic cardiomyopathy in hamsters. – J Int Med Res. 2007 Nov-Dec;35(6):873-7.PMID: 18035000

Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. – J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec;83(12):2775-82.

Effects of components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge on cardiac function injured by myocardial ischemia reperfusion in rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 May;25(5):300-2.PMID: 12512456

Effects of Fructus lycii and Radix astragali on the function of sertoli cells in rat testes – Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007 Jan;13(1):82-6.

Effects of Huangqi (Hex) on inducing cell differentiation and cell death in K562 and HEL cells. – Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2004 Mar;36(3):211-7.

Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. – Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(1):127-38.

Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. – Poultry Science. 2004 Jul;83(7):1124-32.

Effects of processing on contents of saccharides in huangqi – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Feb;28(2):128-9, 173.

Effects of Radix Astragali and Fructus Corni on urinary protein pattern in nephropathy mice by microfluidic chip – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Jul;32(13):1324-8.PMID: 17879737

Effects of several Chinese herbal aqueous extracts on human sperm motility in vitro. – Andrologia. 2004 Apr;36(2):78-83.

Effects of the combination of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (TAS), Cyperus rotundus L. (CR), Ligusticum chuangxiong Hort (LC) and Peaona veitchii lynch (PV) on the hemorheological changes in “blood stagnating” rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1994 Feb;19(2):108-10, 128.Xue JX, Yan YQ, Jiang Y.Institute of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.PMID: 8011132

Effects of compound injection of Pyrola rotundifolia L and Astragalus membranaceus Bge on experimental guinea pigs’ gentamicin ototoxicity. – Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1995 May;104(5):374-80.Xuan W, Dong M, Dong M.Department of Otolaryngology, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical College, Nanning, People’s Republic of China.PMID: 7747908

Effects of cycloartane saponins from hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus Bge., on human tumor cell targets.
– Fitoterapia. 2010 Jan 10.PMID: 20060881

Effects of exercise in the growing stage in mice and of Astragalus membranaceus on immune functions – PMID: 8388067

Effects on herba epimedii and radix Astragali on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappa B in asthmatic rats – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;26(8):723-7.

Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Nov;30(21):1670-2.

Effects of inoculating AM fungi on physiological characters and nutritional components of Astragalus membranaceus under different N application levels
– Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2009 Sep;20(9):2118-22.PMID: 20030131

Effects of mixture of Astragalus membranaceus, Fructus Ligustri lucidi and Eclipta prostrata on immune function in mice – Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1992 Sep;23(4):408-11.He J, Li Y, Wei S, Guo M, Fu W.PMID: 1304546

Efficacy and safety of Astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. – Phytother Res. 2010 Feb;24(2):175-81.PMID: 19504468

Enhancement of non-specific immune response in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by Astragalus membranaceus and its polysaccharides.
– Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009 Dec;27(6):757-62. Epub 2009 Sep 10.PMID: 19748588

Enhancement of the immune response in mice by Astragalus membranaceus extracts. – Immunopharmacology. 1990 Nov-Dec;20(3):225-33.Zhao KS, Mancini C, Doria G.Laboratory of Pathology, ENEA C.R.E., Rome, Italy.PMID: 2149722

Evaluation of the adjuvant properties of Astragalus membranaceus and Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI in the immune protection induced by UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii in mouse models.
– Vaccine. 2010 Jan 8;28(3):737-43. Epub 2009 Nov 1.

Experimental study on yiqi-huoxue therapy of liver fibrosis – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Apr;12(4):228-9, 198.Fu QL.Affiliated Hospital of Hubei College of TCM, Wuhan.PMID: 1498545

Extracorporeal experimental study on immuno-modulatory activity of Astragalus memhranaceus extract – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Jun;22(6):453-6.PMID: 12585195

F3, a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, potentiates lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity generated by low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 Jan;10(1):34-6, 5.Chu D, Sun Y, Lin J, Wong W, Mavligit G.Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.PMID: 2350835

Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2 – J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Aug;26(4):183-7.Chu DT, Lepe-Zuniga J, Wong WL, LaPushin R, Mavligit GM.Department of Clinical Immunology and Biological Therapy, University of Texas System Cancer Center, Houston 77030.PMID: 3264344

Gamma-globin synthesis in K562 cells induced with Tortois plastron, Astragali, Salviae miltiorrhizae and Codonopsis pilosulae
– Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Jun;16(3):520-4.PMID: 18549621

Graft reaction was increased in 18 healthy and 9 cancer patients by Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide extract FB – Wang, 1989

Haemolytic activities and adjuvant effect of Astragalus membranaceus saponins (AMS) on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. – Vaccine. 2005 Oct 25;23(44):5196-203.

Hepatoprotective effects of astraglus root. – J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Sep;30(2):145-9.Zhang ZL, Wen QZ, Liu CX.Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, State Pharmaceutical Administration of China.PMID: 2255205

Herbal extract prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats. – Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Nov;26(11):917-24.PMID: 14661857

Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. – Cochrane Database System Rev. 2004;(3):CD003711.

Hypoglycemic effect of Astragalus polysaccharide and its effect on PTP1B. – Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005 Mar;26(3):345-52.

Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism.
– Phytomedicine. 2009 May;16(5):416-25. Epub 2009 Feb 6.PMID: 19201177

Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts.
– J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):493-8.PMID: 18800897

Immune restoration of local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction in cancer patients in vitro and reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression in the rat in vivo by fractionated Astragalus membranaceus – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Jun;9(6):351-4, 326.Chu DT, Sun Y, Lin JR.PMID: 2789109

Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular. – Int J Immunopharmacology 1997 Jul;19(7):359-70.PMID: 9568540

Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review. – Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1423-30.

Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. I. Immune restoration of local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction in cancer patients by fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vitro – Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM.J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Mar;25(3):119-23. Department of Clinical Immunology and Biological Therapy, University of Texas System Cancer Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston 77030.PMID: 3260960

Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. II. Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo – J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Mar;25(3):125-9.Chu DT, Wong WL, Mavligit GM.Department of Clinical Immunology and Biological Therapy, University of Texas System Cancer Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston 77030.PMID: 3260961

Improving insulin resistance with traditional Chinese medicine in type 2 diabetic patients.
– Endocrine. 2009 Oct;36(2):268-74.PMID: 19728183

Induction of growth hormone by the roots of Astragalus membranaceus in pituitary cell culture. – Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;26(1):34-9.PMID: 12568355

Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte – Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1989 May;11(3):180-3.Wang DC.Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.PMID: 2612327

Influence of ganciclovir and astragalus membranaceus on proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells of cord blood after cytomegalovirus infection in vitro – Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2004 Jul;42(7):490-4.

Influence of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Astragalus membranaceus on hemodynamics and liver fibrosis indexes in liver cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 May;21(5):351-3.PMID: 12577420

Influence of traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicinal plants on leukocyte and platelet functions. – J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;55(9):1275-82.PMID: 14604471

Influence of yang-restoring herb medicines upon metabolism of thyroid hormone in normal rats and a drug administration schedule – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Feb;9(2):93-5, 70.Chen MD, Kuang AK, Chen JL.PMID: 2500264

Inhibitory effects of astragali radix, crude drug in Oriental medicines on lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification of mouse brain homogenate by copper. – Phytotherapy Research 2000 Jun;14(4):294-6.PMID: 10861978

Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma.
– Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008 Jul;86(7):449-57.PMID: 18641694

Inhibitory effects of calycosin isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus on melanin biosynthesis.
– Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Feb;32(2):264-8.PMID: 19182387

Inotropic action of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. saponins and its possible mechanism – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Sep;17(9):557-9, inside backcover.Wang Q.Jilin Province, Central Hospital of Changchun City.PMID: 1292500

In patients with positive ventricular late potentials, electrocardiogram was normalized in 13.6% (of 22) by Astragalus membranaceus and 12.5% (of 16) by lidocaine – Shi, 1994

Integrated treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine for early- and intermediate-stage diabetic nephropathy – Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Jul;27(7):1052-5.PMID: 17666348

Intervention of lidocaine and Astragalus membranaceus on ventricular late potentials – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994 Oct;14(10):598-600.Shi HM, Dai RH, Fan WH.Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Medical  – University.PMID: 7719092

In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. – Cancer Lett. 2007 Jul 8;252(1):43-54. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):295-300.

In vivo and in vitro antiviral activities of calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside against coxsackie virus B3.
– Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Jan;32(1):68-73.PMID: 19122283

Left ventricular function and superoxide dismutase activity of red blood cell was increased in a study with 43 acute myocardial infarction patients – Chen, 1995

Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry study of the flavonoids of the roots of Astragalus mongholicus and A. membranaceus. – J Chromatogr A. 2000 Apr 21;876(1-2):87-95.Lin LZ, He XG, Lindenmaier M, Nolan G, Yang J, Cleary M, Qiu SX, Cordell GA.Research Laboratory of Natural Products Chemistry, A.M. Todd Botanicals, Eugene, OR 97402, USA. longze.lin@amtbotanicals.com PMID: 10823504

Local graft versus host reaction (assay for T-cell function) is restored in 9 out of 10 patients by Astragalus membranaceus extract (10 microgram/ml) – Sun, 1983

Macrophage activation by polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus. – Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Jul;5(7-8):1225-33. Epub 2005 Apr 9.

Mechanism of Shenqi compound recipe anti-earlier diabetic artherosclerosis in GK rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;31(15):1272-6.

Mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of astragalus membranaceus on sodium and water retention in experimental heart failure. – Chin Med J (Engl). 1998 Jan;111(1):17-23.Ma J, Peng A, Lin S.Division of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University, China.PMID: 10322646

Mechanisms underlying vasorelaxant action of astragaloside IV in isolated rat aortic rings. – Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007 May-Jun;34(5-6):387-92.

Memory-improving effect of aqueous extract of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1994 Nov;19(11):687-8, 704.Hong GX, Qin WC, Huang LS.Guangxi Institute of Traditional Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanning.PMID: 7893391

Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;114(3):387-92. Epub 2007 Aug 19.PMID: 17900838

Modification of alterations in cardiac function and sarcoplasmic reticulum by astragaloside IV in myocardial injury in vivo. – Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):203-12. Epub 2007 Apr 19.

Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;24(2):121-3.

Myelophil, an extract mix of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, ameliorates chronic fatigue: a randomised, double-blind, controlled pilot study.- Complement Ther Med. 2009 Jun;17(3):141-6. Epub 2009 Jan 23.PMID: 19398067

Myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented ‘Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood’, a compound formulation, ex vivo. – Phytother Research. 2000 May;14(3):195-9.PMID: 10815014

Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell culture. – Neurochem Int. 2009 Nov;55(6):414-22. Epub 2009 May 4.PMID: 19409437

Neuroprotective effects of Astragulus membranaceus on hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in neonatal rat hippocampus – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;28(12):1174-7.

Non-surgical treatment of small cell lung cancer with chemo-radio-immunotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine – Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1994 Jul;33(7):462-6.Cha RJ, Zeng DW, Chang QS.General Hospital of PLA, Beijing.PMID: 7867442

Novel herbal flavonoids promote apoptosis but differentially induce cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cell. – Invest New Drugs. 2010 Feb;28(1):1-13. Epub 2009 Jan 13.PMID: 19139819

Nuclear cardiology study on effective ingredients of Astragalus membranaceus in treating heart failure – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Dec;15(12):707-9.Luo HM, Dai RH, Li Y.Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 8732134

Pharmacological activity of cardiovascular agents from herbal medicine. – Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2007 Oct;5(4):273-7.PMID: 17979689

Phytochemicals potentiate interleukin-2 generated lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity against murine renal cell carcinoma – Mol Biother. 1992 Sep;4(3):143-6.Wang Y, Qian XJ, Hadley HR, Lau BH.Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA 92350.PMID: 1445669

Positive modulating action of shengmaisan with Astragalus membranaceus on anti-tumor activity of LAK cells – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Aug;13(8):471-2, 453.Zhao TH.Chengde Medical College.PMID: 8111199

Preliminary efficacy and safety of oral suspension SH, combination of five chinese medicinal herbs, in people living with HIV/AIDS ; the phase I/II study. – J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Sep;87(9):1065-70.

Preliminary observations on the effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum on lymphocyte blastogenic responses – J Biol Response Mod. 1983;2(3):227-37.Sun Y, Hersh EM, Lee SL, McLaughlin M, Loo TL, Mavligit GM.PMID: 6644339

Preliminary study of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of minimal brain dysfunction: analysis of 100 cases – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 May;10(5):278-9, 260.Zhang H, Huang J.Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou College of TCM.PMID: 2397543

Preparation and suppressive effect of astragalus polysaccharide in glomerulonephritis rats. – Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Jan;7(1):23-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

Preparative isolation and purification of calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao by high-speed counter-current chromatography. – J Chromatogr A. 2002 Jul 12;962(1-2):243-7.PMID: 12198969

Preparative isolation of cyclolanostane-type saponins from Astragalus membranaceus bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao by TLC-MS/MS guided high-speed counter-current chromatography. – J Sep Sci. 2007 Jan;30(1):135-40.

Prevention of Rhodiola-astragalus membranaceus compounds against simulated plateau hypoxia brain injury in rat – Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2005 Aug;18(4):303-5.

Primary research on the clinical significance of ventricular late potentials (VLPs), and the impact of mexiletine, lidocaine and Astragalus membranaceus on VLPs – Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 May;11(5):265-7, 259.Shi HM, Dai RH, Wang SY.Department of Internal Medicine, Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 1879028

Polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus promote phagocytosis and superoxide anion (O2-) production by coelomocytes from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in vitro.
– Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr;147(3):293-8. Epub 2007 Nov 24.PMID: 18221918

Promotion of axonal maturation and prevention of memory loss in mice by extracts of Astragalus mongholicus. – Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;149(5):532-41. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage using total flavonoids of Astragalus – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Sep;26(9):617-20.PMID: 12776431

Protective effect of astragalosides on myocardial injury by isoproterenol in SD rats. – Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(6):1015-25.

P
rotective effect of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz. on experimental model of cerebral ischemia in rats – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Jun;23(6):371-3, inside back cover.PMID: 11601305

Protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus on intestinal mucosa reperfusion injury after hemorrhagic shock in rats. – World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Aug 28;11(32):4986-91.

Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette-Gurin and lipopolysaccharide in mice.
– Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Aug;103(2):143-9.PMID: 18816297

Protective effect of Gui Qi mixture on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. – Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006 Nov;114(10):563-8.

Protective effects of astragaloside IV on porcine-serum-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and in vitro effects on hepatic stellate cells.
– J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21;122(3):502-8. Epub 2009 Feb 5.PMID: 19429320

Protective effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on ATP binding cassette transporter A1 in THP-1 derived foam cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
– Phytother Res. 2009 Aug 3.PMID: 19653192

Protective effects of Astragalus saponin I on early stage of diabetic nephropathy in rats. – J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Jun;95(2):256-66.

Quantitative analysis of calycosin glycoside and formononetin in Radix astragali from different sources – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 May;32(9):779-83.PMID: 17639972

Quantitative determination of Astragaloside IV, a natural product with cardioprotective activity, in plasma, urine and other biological samples by HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. – J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):170-7.

Reconstitution of telomerase activity in normal human cells leads to elongation of telomeres and extended replicative life span; Homayoun Vaziri1 and Samuel Benchimol;; Department of Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada

Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy
– Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2008 Jan;46(1):55-60.PMID: 18353241

Regulation of the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells: astragaloside IV downregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and upregulates tissue-type plasminogen activator expression. – J Vasc Res. 1997 Jul-Aug;34(4):273-80.Zhang WJ, Wojta J, Binder BR.Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, University of Vienna, Austria.PMID: 9256087

Relaxant effect of Astragalus membranaceus on smooth muscle cells of rat thoracic aorta – Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Jan;34(1):65-8, 72.

Safety and pharmacokinetic trial of docetaxel plus an Astragalus-based herbal formula for non-small cell lung cancer patients. – Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;65(1):67-71. Epub 2009 May 7.PMID: 19421753

Saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture by inhibiting inflammation and upregulating protein C pathway.
– J Nat Med. 2009 Oct;63(4):421-9. Epub 2009 Jun 24.PMID: 19548065

Shen-Qi (Ginseng-Astragalus) reduced the toxic effects of chemotherapy in 176 cases of malignant tumor of the digestive tract, maintaining immunology parameters – Li, 1992

Standard operating procedure for Astragalus membranaceus – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Feb;31(3):191-4.

Stroke treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza + Astragalus + Puraria – Wu, 1989

Studies on chemical constituents and immunological function activity of hairy root of Astragalus membranaceus. – Chin J Biotechnol. 1998;14(2):93-7.Zheng Z, Liu D, Song C, Cheng C, Hu Z.Laboratory of Biotechnology of Chinese Materia Medica, Chinese Materia Medica College, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PMID: 10196633

Studies on pharmacological junctions of hairy root of Astragalus membranaceus – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 Oct;24(10):619-21, 639.PMID: 12205961

Studies on protective effect of total flavonoids of Astragalus on liver damage induced by paracetamol – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;26(7):483-6.PMID: 12776364

Study on chronical hepatitis B with treatment of integrative traditional Chinese and Western medicine – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;31(15):1277-80.

Study on effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on hematopoiesis in anemic mice with myelosuppression – Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Sep;28(9):791-3.

Study on effect of radix astragali on injury of cerebral cortex in neonatal rats after hypoxia/ischemia brain damage – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005 Jan;25(1):54-7.

Study on new extraction technology of astragaloside IV – Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Aug;28(8):705-8.

Study on the anti-herpes simplex virus activity of a suppository or ointment form of Astragalus membranaceus combined with interferon alpha 2b in human diploid cell culture – Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 1998 Sep;12(3):269-71.PMID: 12526333

Study on effects of Astragalus, Angelica and their combination on vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2003 Oct;23(10):753-6.PMID: 14626189

Study on genetic relationship of Astragalus membranaceus var mongholicus in different producing area using SRAP – Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009 Feb;34(4):382-5.PMID: 19459294

Subchronic toxicity studies of Radix Astragali extract in rats and dogs. – J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 21;110(2):352-5. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Suppressive effect of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge on chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. – Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;51(1):75-80. Epub 2002 Nov 26.PMID: 12497209

Synergism of Astragalus membranaceus with interferon in the treatment of cervical erosion and their antiviral activities ‘ (chinese, clinical trial, no abstract) Qian 1987

Systematic review of the renal protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus (root) on diabetic nephropathy in animal models.
– J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Nov 12;126(2):189-96. Epub 2009 Sep 6.PMID: 19735713

Synergistic antioxidant activities of eight traditional Chinese herb pairs.
– Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Jun;32(6):1021-6.PMID: 19483308

Synergistic hepatoprotective effect of Schisandrae lignans with Astragalus polysaccharides on chronic liver injury in rats.
– Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep;16(9):805-13. Epub 2009 Apr 2.PMID: 19345075

The combined modulating effects of cerium nitrate with certain Chinese traditional drugs on altered cell-mediated immunities in scald mice – Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1990 Sep;28(9):562-5, 574-5.Luo ZH.Burned Institute, Third Military Medical College, Chongqing.PMID: 2086133

The effect of Astragalus polysaccharide on endotoxin-induced toxicity in mice – Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(1):5-9.Wang LX, Han ZW.Department of Pharmacology, Inner Mongolia Medical College, Huhehaote.PMID: 1529714

The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study. – Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1109-12.PMID: 17661330

The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans – Phytother Res. 2006 Aug;20(8):687-95.

The effect of icariin and astragalosid I on the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells
– Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Oct;29(10):1062-5.

The Effects of Astragalus Membranaceus on Repeated Restraint Stress-induced Biochemical and Behavioral Responses.
– Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;13(4):315-9. Epub 2009 Aug 31.PMID: 19885016

T
he immunotherapeutic effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. – Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Mar;30(3):470-6.

The inhibitory effect of astragalus membranaceus on coxsackie B-3 virus RNA replication. – Chin Med Sci J. 1995 Sep;10(3):146-50.Peng T, Yang Y, Riesemann H, Kandolf R.Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhong Shan Hospital of Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 8580483

The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and aids patients induced by F3–a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus – Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1994 May;16(3):167-71.Chu DT, Lin JR, Wong W.Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.PMID: 7956691

The main isoflavonoid compound isolated from Astragalus exhibits significant antiviral activity against coxsackie virus in vitro and in vivo; Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Jan;32(1):68-73. PMID: 19122283

The protective action of radix Astragalus membranaceus against hapten-induced colitis through modulation of cytokines. – Cytokine. 2009 Aug;47(2):85-90. Epub 2009 Jun 17.PMID: 19539495

The protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus extraction on cryopreserved primary-cultured human fetal hepatocytes – Zhong Yao Cai. 2007 Dec;30(12):1551-4.PMID: 18422189

The protective effects of three components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus on shock wave lithotripsy induced kidney injury in rabbit model – Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Aug 17;85(31):2201-6.

The protective effects of Radix Astragali and Rhizoma Ligustici chuanxiong on endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria – Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Jul;36(4):529-32.

Therapeutic application and prospect of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis in treating renal microvascular lesions
– Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008 Sep;28(9):859-61.PMID: 19065906

Therapeutic effect of Astragalus and Angelica on renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats – Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 Jan;21(1):43-6.PMID: 12577378

The two isomers of HDTIC compounds from Astragali Radix slow down telomere shortening rate via attenuating oxidative stress and increasing DNA repair ability in human fetal lung diploid fibroblast cells.
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T-lymphocyte profile of peripheral blood is improved by A. membranaceus therapy in viral myocarditis patients – Huang, 1995

Treating amenorrhea in vital energy-deficient patients with angelica sinensis-astragalus membranaceus menstruation-regulating decoction – He, 1986

Treatment of experimental Coxsackie B-3 viral myocarditis with Astragalus membranaceus in mice. – Chin Med J (Engl). 1990 Jan;103(1):14-8.Yang YZ, Jin PY, Guo Q, Wu WZ, Pu SY, Chen HZ, Yang JH, Wang KQ, Shi JY, Gong ZX, et al.Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University.PMID: 2161724

Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy with the herb Astragalus membranaceus. – Am J Kidney Dis. 2007 Dec;50(6):1028-32.PMID: 18037104

Treatment of viral myocarditis caused by coxsackievirus B.
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Treatment with Astragali radix and Angelicae radix enhances erythropoietin gene expression in the cyclophosphamide-induced anemic rat.
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Two compounds extracted from Astragalus delay replicative senescence (aging) in human cells; Peichang Wang, Pengfei Tu, Tanjun Tong, Xiaofeng Ma, Xinwen Liu, Yu Huang, Zongyu Zhang; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100083, PR
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Two new cycloartane saponins from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. – Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Jan;56(1):105-8.PMID: 18175987

Ventricular late potential duration was shortened by Astragalus membranaceus in a small number of patients – Shi, 1991

Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. – Chin Med J (Engl). 1990 Aug;103(8):647-51.Qian ZW, Mao SJ, Cai XC, Zhang XL, Gao FX, Lu MF, Shao XS, Li YY, Yang XK, Zhuo YA, et al.Beijing Tian Tan Hospital.PMID: 2173655

Wound-healing activity of Astragali Radix in rats.
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